Machine generated contents note: PrefaceTo the Reader1 Biological Anthropology In the Field: Doing Biological Anthropology Among the Hutterites A Hawaiian in Connecticut What Is Biological Anthropology? Defining Anthropology The Specialties of Bioanthropology Bioanthropology and Science Science Belief Systems Contemporary Reflections: Is Evolution a Fact, a Theory or Just a Hypothesis? Summary Questions for Further Thought Key Terms Suggested Readings2 The Evolution of Evolution "On the Shoulders of Giants": Explaining the Changing Earth The Biblical Context The Framework of "Natural Philosophy" "Common Sense at Its Best": Explaining Biological Change Darwin's Predecessors Charles Darwin The Modern Theory of Evolution Contemporary Reflections: Has Science Dehumanized Society? Summary Questions for Further Thought Key Terms Suggested Readings3 Evolutionary Genetics How Genes Work An Overview of the Human Genome From Genes to Traits How Inheritance Works Contemporary Reflections: What is Genetic Cloning? Summary Questions for Further Thought Key Terms Suggested Readings4 The Processes of Evolution Species: The Units of Evolution The Four Processes of Evolution Mutations: Necessary Errors Natural Selection: The Prime Mover of Evolution Gene Flow: Mixing Populations' Genes Genetic Drift: Random Evolution Sickle Cell Anemia: Evolutionary Processes in Action Genetics and Symptoms Contemporary Reflections: Are Humans Still Evolving? The Adaptive Explanation Other Relationships Summary Questions for Further Thought Key Terms Suggested Readings5 The Origin of Species and the Shape of Evolution New Species Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms Processes of Speciation The Evolution of Life's Diversity Our Family Tree Adaptive Radiation The Shape of the Family Tree Darwinian Gradualism Punctuated Equilibrium Contemporary Reflections: Are There Alternatives to Evolution? Summary Questions for Further Thought Key Terms Suggested Readings6 A Brief Evolutionary Timetable From the Beginning: A Quick History Drifting Continents and Mass Extinctions: The Pace of Change Contemporary Reflections: Are Mass Extinctions a Thing of the Past? Summary Questions for Further Thought Key Terms Suggested Readings7 The Primates Naming the Animals Linnaean Taxonomy Cladistic Taxonomy What Is a Primate? The Senses Movement Reproduction Intelligence Behavior Patterns A Survey of the Living Primates Prosimians Anthropoids The Human Primate The Senses Movement Reproduction Contemporary Reflections: What Is the Status of Our Closest Relatives? Intelligence Behavior Patterns Summary Questions for Further Thought Key Terms Suggested Readings8 Primate Behavior and Human Evolution Behavioral Evolution How Does Behavior Evolve? How Do We Study Behavior? Primate Behavior Baboons Chimpanzees Bonobos Contemporary Reflections: Are Some Human Behaviors Genetic? Culture and Social Cognition Summary Questions for Further Thought Key Terms Suggested Readings9 Studying the Human Past Bones: The Primate Skeleton Old Bones: Locating, Recovering, and Dating Fossils Finding Fossils Recovering Fossils Dating Fossils How Fossils Get to Be Fossils Genes: New Windows to the Past The "Molecular Clock" The Genetic Differences between Chimps and Humans Contemporary Reflections: Who Owns Old Bones? Summary Questions for Further Thought Key Terms Suggested Readings10 Evolution of the Early Hominins The Origin and Evolution of the Primates Bipedalism The Benefits of Bipedalism The Evolution of Bipedalism The Early Hominins Australopithecus Paranthropus The Search for the First Hominins Putting It All Together Connecting the Dots The Ecological Context Contemporary Reflections: Is There a "Missing Link"? Summary Questions for Further Thought Key Terms Suggested Readings11 The Evolution of Genus Homo Lumpers and Splitters: An Organizing Plan The First Members of Genus Homo The First Stone Tools The Fossils A New Adaptation To New Lands The First Fossils Migration and the Ice Ages The Evolution of Homo erectus The Life of Homo erectus Big Brains, Archaic Skulls Homo antecessor Homo heidelbergensis The Neandertals Physical Features Culture Modern Humans Contemporary Reflections: Who Are the "Hobbits" from Indonesia? Summary Questions for Further Thought Key Terms Suggested Readings12 Evolution and Adaptation in Human Populations Population Adaptations Species Adaptations Variation in Adaptations Are All Variations Adaptively Important? Disease and Human Populations Diseases are "Natural" Disease and Hominin Evolution Disease and History Contemporary Reflections: Where Is the Population Crisis? Emerging Diseases Summary Questions for Further Thought Key Terms Suggested Readings13 Human Biological Diversity Sex and Gender Why Are There No Biological Races within the Human Species? Race as a Biological Concept Human Phenotypic Variation Genetic Variation Evolutionary Theory What, Then, Are Human Races? Race, Bioanthropology, and Social Issues Race and Intelligence Race and Athletic Ability Contemporary Reflections: Are Genetic Ancestry Tests Worth the Money? Summary Questions for Further Thought Key Terms Suggested Readings14 Biological Anthropology and Today's World Forensic Anthropology: Reading the Bones Lessons from the Past Contemporary Reflections: What Can One Do with a Degree in Bioanthropology? Bioanthropology and Global Issues Summary Questions for Further Thought Key Terms Suggested ReadingsAppendix I: Protein Synthesis and the Genetic CodeAppendix II: Genes in PopulationsGlossary of Human and Nonhuman PrimatesGlossary of TermsReferencesCreditsIndex.
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