Principles of biomedical ethics
Tom L. Beauchamp, James F. Childress.
Table of Contents
Part I. Moral foundations. Moral norms. Normative and nonnormative ethics ; The common morality as universal morality ; Particular moralities as nonuniversal ; Moral dilemmas ; A framework of moral norms ; Conflicting moral norms -- Moral character. The concept of moral virtue ; Virtues in professional roles ; The virtue of caring ; Five focal virtues ; Moral ideals ; Moral excellence -- Moral status. The problem of moral status ; Theories of moral status ; From theories to practical guidelines ; The moral significance of moral status ; Vulnerable populations and vulnerable individuals -- Part II. Moral principles. Respect for autonomy. The concept of autonomy and the principle of respect for autonomy ; The capacity for autonomous choice ; The meaning and justification of informed consent ; Disclosure ; Understanding ; Voluntariness -- Nonmaleficence. The concept of nonmaleficence and the principle of nonmaleficence ; Distinctions and rules governing nontreatment ; Optional treatments and obligatory treatments ; Killing and letting die ; The justification of intentionally arranged deaths ; Problems of group harm ; Protecting incompetent patients -- Beneficence. The concept of beneficence and principles of beneficence ; Obligatory beneficence and ideal beneficence ; Paternalism : conflicts between beneficence and respect for autonomy ; Balancing benefits, costs, and risks ; The value and quality of life -- Justice. The concept of justice and principles of justice ; Traditional theories of justice ; Recent theories of justice ; Fair opportunity and unfair discrimination ; Vulnerability, exploitation, and discrimination in research ; National health policy and the right to health care ; Global health policy and the right to health ; Allocating, setting priorities, and rationing -- Professional-patient relationships. Veracity ; Privacy ; Confidentiality ; Fidelity ; Clinical ethics and research ethics ; The dual roles of clinician and investigator -- Part III. Theory and method. Moral theories. Criteria for assessing moral theories ; Utilitarian theory ; Kantian theory ; Rights theory ; Virtue theory ; Convergence of theories -- Method and moral justification. Justification in ethics ; Top-down models : theory and application ; Bottom-up models : cases and analogical reasoning ; Reflective equilibrium as an integrated model ; Common-morality theory.